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Circuits and Systems

  • Sumeer Goel, Mohamed A. Elgamel, Magdy A. Bayoumi, and Yasser Hanafy, “Design Methodologies for High-Performance Noise-Tolerant XOR-XNOR Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers: Vol. 53, No. 4, April 2006.

Abstract: Scaling down to deep submicrometer (DSM) technology has made noise a metric of equal importance as compared to power, speed, and area. Smaller feature size, lower supply voltage, and higher frequency are some of the characteristics for DSMcircuits that make them more vulnerable to noise. New designs and circuit techniques are required in order to achieve robustness in presence of noise. Novel methodologies for designing energy-efficient noise-tolerant exclusive-OR-exclusive-NOR circuits that can operate at low-supply voltages with good signal integrity and driving capability are proposed. The circuits designed, after applying the proposed methodologies, are characterized and compared with previously published circuits for reliability, speed and energy efficiency. To test the driving capability of theproposed circuits, they areembedded in an existing 5–2 compressor design.
The average noise threshold energy (ANTE) is used for quantifying the noise immunity of the proposed circuits. Simulation results show that, compared with the best available circuit in literature, the proposed circuits exhibit better noise-immunity, lower power-delay product (PDP) and good driving capability. All of the proposed circuits prove to be faster and successfully work at all ranges of supply voltage starting from 3.3 V down to 0.6 V. The savings in the PDP range from 94% to 21% for the given supply voltage range respectively and the average improvement in the ANTE is 2.67X.

  • Mohammed Elgamel, Md Ibrahim Faisal, and Magdy Bayoumi, “Noise Metrics in Flip-Flop Designs,” Special Issue on Recent Advances in Circuits and Systems, the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, IEICE, Transactions on Information and Systems, vol. E88-D, pp. 1501-1505, July 2005.

Abstract: About 20–45% of the total power in any VLSI circuit is consumed by the clocking system and 90% of this power consumption is spent by flip-flops. Wider datapaths, deeper pipelines, and increasing number of registers in modern processors have underscored the importance of the flip-flops. As a result, the flip-flops’ performance metrics such as, power, delay, and power delay product will become a crucial factor in overall performance of processors. As technology is moving into deep submicron level, noise immunity and noise generated by any component in a digital device is also becoming a vital factor in circuit design. This paper studies various flip-flop designs for their noise immunity and noise generation metrics. It categorizes the flip-flops and reports extensive simulation results for best representative examples including the newly proposed one from the group (a patent is filed for this flip-flop). It compares power, delay, power delay product, number of transistors, number of clocked transistors, noise immunity, and noise generation for flip-flops that are reported as ones with the best performances in the literature.