Influence of ISM and SMS on Marine Claims
Despite the recent rapid development in shipbuilding industries and maritime navigation instruments, the operation of merchant ships is still subjected to many risks and liabilities, especially these risks where people may become ill are injured, cargo may be lost and marine environment pollution may occur. The numbers and values of claims are submitted to P&I clubs and insurance companies observed that. This paper is illustrates statistical claims from 1987 to 1996 which have reached an extreme value of the above risks, and huge financial losses. Of course all shipowners premium are sharing to cover the value of these claims, which increases operating costs. It has now become essential to hand over claims to P&I clubs and insurance companies evidence appear of the effectiveness of applying ISM and SMS.