Moustafa Hussein Aly
Outdoor Visible Light Communication in Intelligent Transportation Systems: Impact of Snow and Rain
A comprehensive study of outdoor visible light communication (VLC) under snow and rain e ects has been conducted in this paper. This paper analyzes the expected rain attenuation of Marshal, Carbonneau, and Japan models at di erent precipitation levels. Snow attenuation is measured in wet and dry situations at various precipitation levels as well. Therefore, a full comparison is carried out for di erent attenuation e ects on certain outdoor VLC design characteristics such as the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), optical power received, bit error rate (BER), and maximum coverage area. VLC with various modulation techniques is considered. The ON–OFF Keying (OOK), L-Pulse Position Modulation (L-PPM), Inverse L-Pulse Position Modulation (I-L-PPM), and Subcarrier Binary Phase-Shift Keying (SC-BPSK) are investigated. The simulation results show a considerable di erence in the information received under di erent weather conditions depending on the type of modulation scheme used. The simulation has been done on a two-lane road, and a green trac light-emitting diode (LED) with a wavelength of 505 nm is used as a transmitter. A non-imaging concentrator coupled with a photodetector is considered to be a cost-e ective receiver.