Prof.Dr.Ghada E Kot
Creating Balance?: International Perspectives on the Work-Life Integration of Professionals (2011), Editors: Stephan Kaiser and Cornelia Reindl, Publisher: Springer (Berlin). The chapter title: Potential antecedents and conseq
Although the work-family interface has received considerable research attention over the past two decades, inconsistent findings have been reported. One reason for this is the use of different definitions and work-family measures. Carlson, Kacmar and Williams (2000) developed and provided an initial validation of a new comprehensive measure of bi-directional work-family conflict having three forms: time-, strain- and behavior=-based. Three studies replicated and extended their work by employing large samples of managers and professionals working in the manufacturing sector in Turkey, hotel managers in Beijing China, and managers and professionals in Egypt, and including additional antecedents and consequences. The three measures of work-family conflict were highly reliable and inter-correlated to the same extent in these three studies as in US study of Carlson and her colleagues. Both job demands and wor0-oriented personality factors (NAch, workaholic behaviors) were related to levels of work-family conflict. Strain-based conflict emerged as a stronger and more consistent predictor of both work outcomes and levels of psychological well-being. There were difference in mean levels on the three work-family measures and gender differences found in the US study were not found in the three new studies. These findings suggest considerable agreement across the four studies with modest and subtle differences as well.